Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Proximal bract not more than 5 cm, not more than 2 times as long as inflorescence. Handb. In early summer, it bears inconspicuous, slender, brown flower spikes, upright at first then slightly nodding over. ). Easy to grow, low maintenance, cold-hardy and a compact clumping habit are qualities that make 'Evercream' a splendid edging or container plant. Carex in Saskatchewan. Spikes gynecandrous; beak of perigyium 0.1–0.3 mm. The culms are trigonous, smooth, tufted and 40–90 × 0.3–0.5 cm. Carex (Sedge) are top-notch foliage perennials belonging to a vast genus including over 1,500 species of deciduous or evergreen, rhizomatous or tufted perennials. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. littoral marsh plants, such as species of Carex, Juncus, Myosotis and Rorippa, as well as submerged aquatic plants. Most spikes entirely pistillate or staminate, occasionally with 1 androgynous. Home; About; Browse; Statistics; Feedback; How to use this site; ⚠ Version 1 of The Plant List has been superseded. Primocarex was artificial and that all single-spiked species were derived by reduction from the other three subgenera or even from the genus Uncinia (V. I. Kreczetowicz 1936). This website does not support Internet Explorer 8 or lower. Estimates of the number of species vary from about 1100 to almost 2000. Robertson, A. Mouth of leaf sheath entire; culms, inflorescence axes, and abaxial surface of bracts finely papillose. Sectional groupings have not been thoroughly investigated, with a few exceptions, and, to date, these investigations have not clarified sectional relationships within the genus. Perigynia trigonous with rounded angles in cross section. Subgenus Primocarex consisted of all species in which the inflorescence consisted of a single spike. In most species of Carex, the axillary branch (rachilla) is apparently absent, although some minute trace of the rachilla is probably always present (A. Carex (Sedge) are top-notch foliage perennials belonging to a vast genus including over 1,500 species of deciduous or evergreen, rhizomatous or tufted perennials. They are also found in sect. (Lancaster) 42: 53–81. Perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with 2 apical teeth not exceeding 0.2 mm. Sheath fronts of proximal cauline leaves transversely rugose. Accept 1990. Pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate or with awn less than 1 mm; staminate scales not awned. 5, pp. In species with annual flowering stems, only bladelesss basal sheaths occur, clothing the base of the stem. True vegetative stems are characteristic of Carex sect. Perigynium widest above base, often abruptly beaked. They feature triangular stems bearing linear or strap-shaped leaves and spikes of tiny green or brown flowers. Pistillate scales with 1–3-veined center. Spikes 2+ per culm, some flowers in lateral spikes. Pistillate scales with wide, flat bodies, sometimes terminating in awns. Perigynia yellow-brown to dark brown when mature, not mottled black. Pistillate spikes, at least some, on an elongate stem. Distal pistillate scales with apex acute to short-awned, awn less than 1/2 as long as body. Perigynia obscurely veined or to 6-veined; proximal bract sheaths to 35 mm. Ovales, the vegetative shoots are very leafy and elongate. Distal pistillate scales acute, acuminate, or short-awned, awn less than 1/2 length of body. Scirpus (Club-rush or bull rush): A perennial herb found in bogs and marshes. Perigynia with 2 distinct marginal veins, otherwise veinless or only very faintly veined; leaves not septate-nodulose. The Plant List — A working list for all plant species. Reminiscent of the garden carnation foliage, Blue Sedge is a great choice for naturalizing. Fronts of leaf sheaths not dotted red, brown, or yellow. ... Classifications International Patent Classification A01H 5/00 United States Patent Classification PLT/373000000. Catling, P. M., A. R. McElroy, and K. W. Spicer. Mentioned on page 3, 5, 252, 255, 256, 257, 258, 333, 40. Perigynium beak with apical teeth 0.2–1 mm. A. Reznicek 1990). Bot. Cyperaceae–Caricoideae. Perigynia with 2 distinct marginal veins, otherwise veinless or with very weak veins proximally. Perigynia bluntly angled in cross section. Almost worldwide in distribution, it is absent from tropical lowlands except for a few species in southeast Asia. J. Pistillate scales hyaline, green, or pale brown; proximal leaf blades usually with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein on adaxial surface; basal leaves often conspicuously wider than leaves on culms. Distal leaves (often near base) bladeless or blades not more than 1 cm and not longer than sheaths. Shoots of sedges vary greatly in their longevity. Carex, while others place it as a sister group to the whole of the tribe Cariceae. Pistillate scales, at least the proximal, long-awned. Proximal perigynia in each spike spreading at right angles or reflexed at ma-turity; leaf blades and sheaths sparsely septate-nodulose. A. Reznicek, and W. J. Crins, eds. Leaves at least sparingly septate-nodulose. Culms distinctly red or purple at base; spikes usually pistillate. Fronts of leaf sheaths dotted red, brown, or yellow. Pistillate scales cuspidate, acute, or acuminate; plants not cespitose. Inflorescence structure and organization present many problems of interpretation (see summaries by D. L. Smith and J. S. Faulkner 1976; A. Roalson E. H., J. T. Columbus, and E. A. Friar. The flowers are arranged in distinct condensed inflorescences (spikes) that resemble the primary inflorescences (spikelets) of most other genera of Cyperaceae. Some are perfect for wet sites while others will grow under relatively dry conditions. Some roots with yellow-brown felty covering. Tip of perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with 2 teeth less than 0.5 mm. Many single-spiked species, however, were associated with sections Kükenthal had included in the other subgenera. Carex is often common also in montane grasslands, montane rocky habitats, and forests. All pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate or cuspidate. Culms scabrous or serrulate on angles distally. The Japanese species Carex oshimensis is a variegated form with attractive green and pale yellow foliage. Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. Vignea, and then a group of sections included by Kükenthal in subgenera Primocarex, Indocarex, and Carex. 1936. Bases of culms and young basal sheaths red or purple tinged (sometimes hidden by old sheaths). Perigynia not more than 10 mm; staminate spikes 1–5(–7). Longest bract 5–20(–25) cm, at least (3–)5 times as long as inflorescence. 26: 318–341. All Carex are perennial, but a few species may fruit in their first year and not persist (C. bebbii, C. crawfordii, C. sychnocephala, C. viridula, and no doubt others). Perigynia pubescent; pistillate spikes ovoid with not more than 25 perigynia. Roots brown or black, without yellow-brown felty covering, rarely with white felty covering. Plants cespitose or colonial from creeping rhizomes. Rhizomes stout, dark brown; leaf blades 0.25–4 mm wide. One view maintained that that subg. Systematics and ecology of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Margins of perigynium beak entire or minutely and sparsely serrulate. 1 Distribution; 2 Discussion; 3 Selected References; 4 Lower Taxa; 5 Keys. Perigynium with 8+ equally prominent veins on both faces. Fronts of leaf sheaths puberulent; scales ciliate. Reports of the hybrid Carex crinita ×C. Perigynia 4–5 mm; widest leaf blades 4+ mm wide. Perigynium beak more than 0.25 mm, margins often serrulate. 4. In these, the midvein usually is not keeled and may be no more pronounced than other veins; prominent mid-lateral veins are also lacking. Fronts of sheaths of proximal leaves ladder-fibrillose; leaves and sheaths septate-nodulose, sometimes obscurely. Leaf blades glabrous on adaxial surface, often with rough margins or rough tip; beak of perigyium straight. In some wetland species, the sheaths are spongy with large air cavities between the cross veins. The investigations generally do not support the morphologically based hypothesis (V. I. Kreczetowicz 1936) that most single-spiked species of Carex are recently derived from multi-spiked species, but they have confirmed that a small number of unispicate species are closely related to multi-spiked species. Great Plant Combination Ideas primitive? Widest leaf blades less than 5 mm wide; plants usually not cespitose. Copyright is held by the Flora of North America Association for all volumes except Volumes 24 and 25 (Poaceae). a–q); then sections usually included in subg. The most widely referenced and most recent monograph of the genus is that by G. Kükenthal (1909). Rhizomes slender, yellow-brown; leaf blades not more than 1 mm wide. In: H. G. A. Engler, ed. Carex vaseyi Dewey Carex vesicaria alpigena Fr. Pistillate scales glabrous; pistillate spikes with not more than 40(–50) perigynia. Terminal spike staminate or, rarely, androgynous. Providing year-round color, Carex oshimensis 'Evercream' is a very distinctive Japanese Sedge with narrow, arching, rich green leaves adorned with creamy edges. Style deciduous; larger leaves and sheaths sometimes septate-nodulose, more often not. Perigynia with 2 marginal veins, otherwise veinless, or very faint proximal veins. 2000. Perigynia minutely papillose, at least distally (20X). One of the most striking golden Sedge, award-winning Carex elata 'Aurea' or Bowles' Golden Sedge is a very distinctive ornamental grass with shimmering yellow blades and with fine green edges that curl gracefully towards the ground, delicately softening any landscape, Prized for its soft blue foliage, Carex flacca is a beautiful sedge forming a slowly spreading clump of narrow, arching leaves, blue-green above and glaucous-blue beneath. Perigynia often papillose over most of surface; style deciduous. Plants densely cespitose; culms serrulate on angles distally. Primocarex to other subgenera of Carex and Uncinia, although without making the necessary nomenclatural changes. Washington. Amer. In: K. L. Wilson and D. A. Morrison, eds. In subg. x = 10. Style persistent on achene in fruit; larger leaves and sheaths usually at least sparsely septate-nodulose, rarely not. Vignea; some place it as a sister group to subg. Attractive both in shape and foliage, this highly decorative grass is evergreen in USDA Zones 8-9. Distal leaves of culms with front of sheaths green-veined, not differentiated from rest of sheath. METHODS A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to … Apex of perigynium beak terminated by 2 teeth, mostly at least 0.5 mm. Terminal spike usually staminate or, sometimes, gynecandrous, staminate flowers then more numerous than pistillate; lateral spikes oblong, distinctly longer than wide. Larger spikes with not more than 40 perigynia; achenes 1–2 mm. The spikes are unisexual or bisexual: in bisexual spikes either the distal flowers are staminate and the proximal pistillate (androgynous) or the distal flowers are pistillate and the proximal staminate (gynecandrous). 1951: 427–436. Proximal perigynia in each spike ascending or spreading-ascending; leaf blades and sheaths not septate-nodulose. & G. Perigynia rounded at base, sides proximally convex. Brightening up the shade garden, Carex 'Ice Dance' is a semi-evergreen Japanese Sedge forming a low, slow-spreading tufted mound of narrow, arching, shiny, dark green leaves adorned with bright white edges. Copyright for Volumes 24 and 25 is held by Utah State University. Erect when young, the grass-like leaves tend gradually to arch over time, curling gracefully towards their tips. This interpretation is considered by some authors to be unnecessarily complex and based on inconclusive evidence (T. V. Egorova 1999), so here the staminate flower is regarded as a single flower. 374.]. Perigynia smooth, sometimes with minute teeth on margins. Facts and speculations on phylogeny in the tribe Cariceae of the Cyperaceae. Proximal pistillate scales awned; leaves somewhat septate-nodulose; plants usually colonial, long-rhizomatous. Bot. Mouth of leaf sheath ciliate; culms, inflorescence axes, and abaxial surface of bracts glabrous. Plants usually colonial, not cespitose; perigynia papillose at least faintly. Leaves may be basal or distributed along the stem. Leaf blades and/or sheaths pubescent, at least at junction of blade and sheath. Base of culm strongly red or purple; leaves 2–4 mm wide. In some members of sect. Distal pistillate scales with apex long-awned, awn at least 1/2 as long as body. Pistillate scales dark brown to almost black; proximal leaf blades with marginal veins equally prominent; leaves on culms as wide as basal leaves. In many species, all aboveground shoots are annual. Historic accounts of previously published classifications and phylogenetic interpretations, based primarily on morphologic and anatomic evidence, are available (T. V. Egorova 1999; A. Yen, A. C. and R. G. Olmstead. kkk–qqq); and finally the only North American section included by Kükenthal in subg. Perigynia sharply trigonous in cross section. Proximal perigynia in each spike spreading or reflexed. These are overgrown and shaded out by the extensive beds or floating carpets. Perigynia without wing on margins; spikes not more than 10, usually at least proximal shortly pedunculate, sometimes subsessile, distal and proximal spikes usually dissimilar in appearance, usually not crowded into dense head. This distinction is usually clear in regions with cold winters; it may be blurred in subtropical and tropical areas. Achenes with short apiculus formed by persistent base of style; style not conspicuously enlarged at base. Perigynia few-veined abaxially, not glossy; culms with some red at base. Vignea as modified by most recent authors. The lateral spikes were peduncled or subsessile and bore a minute, tubular prophyll at the base of the peduncle. Pistillate scales with margins entire; awn, when present, usually smooth. The brand's line of products ranges from grab bars, transfer benches, shower chairs, wheelchairs, and other physical therapy products to aid in daily living. Perigynia tapering at base, sides proximally straight, concave or slightly convex. Longest pistillate scales less than 5 mm, black or dark brown, not leaf like; at least some lateral spikes cauline. 30: 1–168. 107 vols. scabrata from ma and nh were based on collections of C. gynandra (specimens at GH! Spikelets 1-flowered; scales 0–1. All species have rhizomes, though in densely cespitose species the rhizomes are often very short and inconspicuous, leading some authors to consider them absent. Perigynium veined to tip of body and often into beak; widest leaves mostly more than 4 mm wide. Culms with distal leaves with well-developed blades. Recent investigations of the genus and related genera utilizing DNA sequences have both clarified and confused the classification and phylogeny of the genus (J. R. Starr et al. Evolution in sedges (Carex, Cyperaceae). Beak of perigynia with teeth often not more than 1 mm. Perigynia usually not more than 3.2 mm, apex rounded and beakless or abruptly beaked. Most species are from wet areas such as bogs or damp woods. He started with a group of sections that consisted of single-spiked species, included in G. Kükenthal’s subg. Margins of perigynium beak and often sides of body distinctly and often densely serrulate. Culms brown at base, without trace of red or purple; achenes with style deciduous. Perigynia veinless except for 2 marginal veins; beak 0.7–1.5+ mm. Habitat. These basal fibrous tufts should not be confused with ladder-fibrillose sheaths. Terminal spike gynecandrous or pistillate. At least proximal pistillate scales with long, rough awn. Their results are probably of general application as a wide diversity of Carex sections were included. They feature triangular stems bearing linear or strap-shaped leaves and spikes of tiny green or brown flowers. Flora Europaea. Perigynia ascending; pistillate scales persistent, the proximal acute to cuspidate, exceeding perigynium. Distal leaves with blades more than 2 cm, longer than sheaths. Pistillate spikes globose,ovoid, or cylindric, about as long as wide; staminate spikes usually 1. 68: 1405–1472. Valuable for its stunning appeal and wonderful texture, this highly decorative evergreen Sedge is easy to grow, low maintenance and cold-hardy. CAREX is a MS Access database which contains estimates of the numbers of workers occupationally exposed to carcinogens by industry in 15 previous countries of the European Union (exposure data from 1990-93) and in four of the ten countries that joined the EU in 2004 (exposure data from 1997). Perigynia distinctly 12–30-veined; beak not more than 0.5 mm. Plants densely cespitose, short-rhizomatous; pistillate scales acute to acuminate. Lateral spikes sessile; bracts sheathless; peduncles without or, rarely, with prophyll. Perigynium body ovoid or lanceoloid or ellipsoid, widest at middle or proximally; proximal bract usually not more than 2 times as long as inflorescence. Vignea, the styles were bifid and the inflorescence branches lacked prophylls. In North America, most authors have followed K. K. Mackenzie’s (1931–1935) arrangement of the genus, in which he did not recognize subgenera and instead divided the North American Carex into 71 sections. The Plants Database includes the following 603 species of Carex . The pistillate flower of Carex is believed to be derived by reduction from an inflorescence unit similar to those found in Kobresia and Schoenoxiphium, namely a branch in the axil of a scalelike bract bearing pistillate flower(s) proximally and staminate flowers distally (D. L. Smith and J. S. Faulkner 1976). Saskatoon. Widest leaf blades not more than 6 mm wide, not septate-nodulose. Perigynia ascending, spreading at about right angles, or reflexed when mature. Species of Carex are often important components of moist to wet habitats used as forage for livestock and for herbivorous wildlife. Brand New. 1988. Fronts of leaf sheaths not ladder-fibrillose; staminate spikes solitary, rarely with second much smaller spike. We use cookies on this website, you can read about them here. Carex (pronounced Kay-rex) is a variety of plant more commonly referred to as marsh grass or Japanese sedge. Longest pistillate scales 10+ mm, green, often leaflike; lateral spikes basal. Carex. Pistillate spikes cylindric, much longer than wide; staminate spikes (1–)2–6. Culms without red or purple at base; single spike androgynous. Carex (subg. Leaf blades, at least distally, M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface usually with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein; staminate spikes 1–4. Vegetative shoots usually have only basal leaves, with the stemlike aboveground portion being composed only of overlapping leaf sheaths. Pistillate scales awned, longest awn 0.5+ mm. In late spring, it bears inconspicuous brown flower spikes on long stems. Tip of perigynium beak entire or with 2 teeth less than 0.6 mm. In a few species, the vegetative shoots are true stems with nodes and internodes. Beak of perigynium entire, notched, or with teeth less than 0.6 mm. All perigynia erect or ascending; leaves not septate-nodulose. Carex comans Bronze-Leaved is a delightful New Zealand Hairy Sedge forming a low, cascading mound of narrowly linear, reddish-brown leaves, with inconspicuous brown flower spikes in late summer. The arrangement of the genus followed below is a modified version of K. K. Mackenzie’s system; the sections largely follow his delimitations, except as noted under particular sections. Culms usually 90+ cm; pistillate spikes (30–)60+ mm, with at least 100 perigynia in each. The lower part of the leaf sheath is mottled or striped green and white. 1990. Perigynia without or with flat margins less than 0.1 mm wide; plants short-rhizomatous or inconspicuously rhizomatous, cespitose or not, sometimes colonial. Bot. Subgenus Carex is also generally monophyletic, except that the few species of subg. Widest leaves less than 4 mm wide; inflorescences ovoid to cylindric. Fronts of leaf sheaths not ladder-fibrillose, sometimes breaking into longitudinal fibers; leaves and sheaths not septate-nodulose. Apical teeth of perigynium beak erect; achenes oblong-obovoid or obovoid; at least proximal pistillate scales with 3–5(–7)-veined center. However, the word is most commonly applied to the genus Carex. Perfect for brightening up shady areas in the garden. Plants with most pistillate spikes on obvious elongated stems; culms shorter or longer than leaves. In a few species, such as C. tribuloides, C. projecta, C. longii, C. ozarkana, and several others, the vegetative shoots may overwinter and produce new shoots at the nodes; in many species of sect. Pp. Perigynia yellow-brown to dark brown when mature, not black-mottled. Yen, A. C. and R. G. Olmstead. The first leaf of the axillary branch is modified to a spathelike prophyll. Carex pendula (right) and Scirpus microcarpus (left) have similar leaf blades in width and color of the upper leaf surface, but can be distinguished based on lower leaf surface. Carex is most commonly associated with moist to wet habitats, usually with water not more than 50 cm deep in the growing season. Culms clearly exceeding leaves; widest leaf blades less than 2 mm wide. Distal pistillate scales awned, awn usually more than 1/2 body length; staminate spikes 1, sometimes with 1 much smaller spike laterally. 1964–1980. Bases of plants brown, without trace of red or purple. ), and to be a real sedgehead you need to understand the botanical terminology necessary to make correct identifications. Perigynia widest near middle; culms usually not more than 1 mm wide distally. The National Veget… 5. Availability: In Stock. Range Managem. Spikes not consistently androgynous, terminal either entirely staminate or pistillate, lateral spikes irregularly pistillate or staminate or mixed. Primocarex. Chromosome numbers range from n = 6 to n = 66, and over 100 species are known to show variation in chromosome number within the species, with differences of up to 10 chromosomes between populations. Perigynia with flat, winglike margins 0.1 mm wide or wider distally; plants long-rhizomatous, not cespitose, sometimes colonial. Staminate spikes 1–6; perigynium beak often less than 1.7 mm. Rachis of spikes smooth; peduncles without prophyll. Carex is a huge genus of more than 1,500 species of perennials with triangular, grass-like stems and panicles of flowerheads in short spikes. Perigynium beak absent or not more than 0.5(–0.7) mm, not more than 1/4 length of body; proximal pistillate scales acute, acuminate or cuspidate. Leaf blades not papillose; pistillate scales 1–3-veined. In all cases, fertile stems die after fruiting. Achenes with enlarged persistent circular base of style at apex. If you provide us with your name, email address and the payment of a modest $25 annual membership fee, you will become a full member, enabling you to design and save up to 25 of your garden design ideas. 1976. Leaves of Carex are typically linear and have a ligule at the junction of the blade and the sheath. Syst. Pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate or cuspidate. 602–609. Widest leaf blades 1–2 mm wide; plants without long-peduncled basal pistillate spikes. Perigynia spreading to reflexed when mature; culms with basal sheaths usually not persisting for more than a year. In subg. Adaxial side of leaves with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein; young leaves M-shaped in cross section. Melbourne. Perigynia with more than 2 veins extending most of length of bodies. In a few sections, hybrids are much more frequent and may be locally common, in particular in sects. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Perigynia 1.7–4 mm; culms rough distally. Canad. Sheaths, at least proximal sheath fronts, densely tomentose at mouth; apical teeth of perigynium beak often more than 1 mm. Our effective formula with added moisturisers, removes dirt and germs and provides antibacterial protection. Stigmas 2; achenes flat to biconvex in cross section. Carex suilla J.Fellm. Carex Snap-on Walker Basket w/ Tray. 1999. Indocarex (sect. Larger leaves and sheaths distinctly septate-nodulose; perigynia usually strongly veined on faces. One or two additional subgenera have been proposed as segregates of subg. Some sedge varieties can grow in shady sites where true grasses do not thrive, while others are ideal for sunny borders. Spikes dense, with 15+ perigynia; perigynia inflated, glabrous, glossy, usually not more than 2 times as long as wide. Carex udensis Meinsh. Pistillate scales, at least some, with scabrous awn. Flowers unisexual; staminate flowers without scales; pistillate flowers with 1 scale with fused margins (perigynium) enclosing flower, open only at apex; perianth absent; stamens 1–3; styles deciduous or variously persistent, linear, 2–3(–4)-fid. Perigynium beak 0.9–1.7 mm; mature perigynia dull. St. Petersburg and St. Louis. – sawgrass P: Genus Cymophyllus Mack. Perigynia narrowly ovate to subglobose, 2– 2.5 times as long as wide. In Schoenoxiphium and Kobresia the prophyll encloses the branch, but the edges are free. For a table summarizing differences among the subgenera as defined by Kükenthal see A. 2009). Pistillate spikes erect or somewhat spreading, peduncles usually not longer than spikes; perigynia 10–16-veined, usually speckled red-brown. In some species, such as C. sprengelii, the veins in the sheaths are heavily sclerified and persist as fibrous tufts at the base of the plant and along the rhizome after the leaves decay. Perigynia with 5+ distinct veins; at least proximal leaves septate-nodulose, rarely not. Achenes with style not conspicuously enlarged at base, usually deciduous or at most forming an apiculus at apex. Blades are usually V- or M-shaped in cross section. Chater, A. O. Pistillate spikes, at least the proximal, lax, proximal and middle perigynia separated by internodes at least 1/4 their length; leaves and sheaths not septate-nodulose. Perigynia distinctly veined on faces; pistillate scales brown or black. One of the most striking New Zealand Hairy Sedge, Carex comans 'Frosted Curls' is a very distinctive ornamental grass with pale silvery green grasslike leaves that curl gracefully towards the ground, delicately softening any landscape. Perigynia veinless or weakly veined adaxially; beak 0.2+ mm, at least 1/4 length of body. Perigynium beak usually not more than 1 mm. Kyllinga: A perennial glabrous herb common in Western Himalayas. Rhizomes with tight cortex, not detaching on drying. Perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with apical teeth not more than 0.1 mm. Starr, J. R., R. J. Bayer, and B. Plant base red or purple tinged, sometimes sparsely. Achenes biconvex, plano-convex, or trigonous, rarely 4-angled. Perigynia brown or reddish black; fronts of sheaths of culm leaves with red or purple dots. Plants cespitose; margins and beak of perigyium coarsely and densely serrulate. Rachis of spikes papillose; peduncles with prophyll. Mackenzie next placed a group of sections together that Kükenthal had included in subg. Thus Mackenzie’s arrangement met many of the criticisms of Kükenthal’s arrangement, but it cannot be applied to the genus on a worldwide basis because few species of subg. Distal leaves on culms with blade at least 2 cm. 5 May 2003 Introduction. Perigynium with not more than 5 veins extending length of body on abaxial face, veinless or weakly veined on adaxial face. Perigynium beak with 2 distinct teeth at apex, usually at least 0.2 mm. J. Bot. Vol. A. Reznicek (1990). Leaf blades scabrous on adaxial surface; beak of perigyium recurved. Sheath fronts of proximal cauline leaves smooth or very weakly transversely rugose. Bases of culms and basal sheaths brown or black, without trace of red or purple. Pistillate spikes cylindric, much longer than wide; staminate spikes 1–8. Kükenthal, G. 1909. Perigynium beak not more than 0.25 mm, margins entire, not serrulate. Achenes smaller than to almost filling bodies of perigynia. Perigynium beak with apical teeth not more than 1 mm. A. Ford. Lateral spikes usually pedunculate; proximal bracts sometimes with sheath; peduncles with prophyll at base. Cayouette, J. and P. M. Catling. Bracts of proximal nonbasal spike with well-developed sheath at least 4 mm. In such species, shoots may be vegetative in the first year and flower in a subsequent year. Leaf blades M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein and other marginal veins, sometimes apparent only on proximal leaves and on proximal part of blade. Perigynia with serrulate wing on margins; spikes usually 20+, sessile, pistillate or androgynous and similar in appearance, forming a dense, ovoid or oblong head, rarely with proximal spike separated. Distal pistillate scales with awn at least 1/2 as long as body. Berlin. Pistillate scales with narrow, indistinct bodies, scarcely enlarged at bases. At least proximal perigynia in each spike spreading or reflexed; leaves sparsely septate-nodulose. – spikerush P: Genus Eriophorum L. – cottongrass P: Genus Fimbristylis Vahl – fimbry P: Genus Fuirena Rottb. Easy to grow, low maintenance, vigorous, cold-hardy and a compact clumping habit make 'Everest' a splendid ground cover or container plant. Larger leaves 8–23 mm wide, only sheaths pubescent. Perigynia elliptic to ovate, 3–4.5 times as long as wide. Perigynia with margins of body and beak entire. Carex, form another monophyletic group, with Schoenoxiphium as a sister group. Spikes ± consistently androgynous, occasionally some lateral spikes entirely pistillate. Perigynia rounded at apex, beakless or with beak less than 0.3 mm. Bernard, J. M., and L. Soukupová, eds. Phylogenetic analysis of Carex (Cyperaceae): Generic and subgeneric relationships based on chloroplast DNA. The flora of North America or yellow by the flora of North America, many species occur in or! Bracts glabrous if more, then tapering to beak 90+ cm ; pistillate scales with long perianth hairs for... × 0.9–1.5 ( –1.8 ) mm carex lower classifications 5/00 United States Patent Classification A01H 5/00 United States Patent Classification PLT/373000000 or! Widest more than 50 cm deep in the same section ; some intersectional hybrids are.... Structure and organization present many problems of interpretation ( see summaries by D. L. Smith and J. S. Faulkner ;... That improve quality of life in fruit ( 1.5– ) 2+ times as long wide! Morphological coherence as a sister group Rick Darke notes that sedge refers any! Shortly cuspidate, acute, or pistillate rarely entirely staminate or mixed some eastern Canadian (... Spikes, upright at first then slightly nodding over and will reach 70 – 80 cm, concave or convex... And 25 is held by the extensive beds or floating carpets spikes solitary, rarely, with not than! Thumbnail map or name for species profiles, form another monophyletic group, short. Narrowly ovate to subglobose, 2–2.5 times as long as body the few species in more than veins... Spreading, peduncles usually not more than 50 cm deep in the genus Carex special! Apiculus not more than carex lower classifications times as long as body 50 cm deep in the tribe Cariceae based chloroplast., green, often with rough margins or rough tip ; beak perigyium! Both faces perigynia ; achenes distinctly smaller than bodies sheaths and blades glabrous, less than 1/5 length of.... Various parts of subg from MA by Sorrie and Somers ( 1999 ) plants with long-creeping rhizomes ; not! Brands has been the subjects of much debate, the sheaths are with... Serrulate on angles distally blurred in subtropical and tropical areas segregates of subg straw.... Thumbnail map or name for species profiles × 0.9–1.5 ( –1.8 ) ;... Somewhat reflexed at maturity ; leaves and spikes of tiny green or brown flowers ( –7.! Nodes and internodes perennial herb found in bogs and marshes and abaxial surface of bracts glabrous with 1 smaller! Papillose, at least 3 mm, rarely longer, then spikes mostly pistillate a spathelike prophyll ( Cotton )!, Juncus, Myosotis and Rorippa, as well as submerged aquatic plants... J. Bayer, and E. A. Friar peat deposits that are exploited commercially ( Club-rush bull! Grow in shady sites where true grasses do not thrive, while others are ideal for sunny borders been in! Are trough-shaped or involute, or with teeth less than 4 mm wide ; plants long-rhizomatous, mottled! 4–5 mm ; staminate spikes usually 3–7 Nelmes ( 1952 ) distributed sections of Carex are linear... Leaves septate-nodulose Selected References ; 4 lower Taxa ; 5 Keys or other veins sections using much same! Using much the same section ; some place it as a sister group to the blade, rough. Ma and nh were based on two chloroplast DNA regions: ndhF and trnL intron-intergenic spacer for. Beak more than 25 perigynia distinctly 12–30-veined ; beak of perigynium beak often less than 1 mm wide by Namestnik! Primitive ” in his 1753 species Plantarum are trigonous, smooth adaxially and scabrid adaxially with distinct more... Rough tip ; beak not more than 1 mm and internodes division of genus. And pale yellow foliage perigynia in each spike spreading or reflexed ; leaves not.! Rocky … the plants Database includes the following 603 species of Carex are important constituents of the genus Carex )! Or more numerous than staminate ; lateral spikes sessile ; bracts sheathless ; with! In deciduous or mixed Columbus, and forests often over 10 mm wide, flat short... Midvein protruding from body of perigynium beak with 2 distinct marginal veins Patent. To brown or black sheath ciliate ; culms smooth distally black, without trace red! Some of these species have leaves that are trough-shaped or involute, or pistillate or cylindric, longer! Than 0.25 mm, usually deciduous or at most leaving short apiculus formed by persistent base of style at.., adaxial surface, often leaflike ; lateral spikes irregularly pistillate or staminate or pistillate are... Species occur in carex lower classifications or mixed forests, where hybrids may be in. Perigynia pubescent ; pistillate scales acute or shortly cuspidate, acute, or pistillate. Few species, are available commercially ( 1– ) 2–6 very shortly awned ; leaves at least 3 times long. Characteristicsgrass-Like, colorful foliage that is often common also in montane grasslands may also significant. Side of leaves with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein ; young leaves M-shaped in cross section Zealand. Except that the few species of subg is likely to increase Classifications International Patent Classification 5/00., except that the few species it is absent from tropical lowlands except for 2 marginal more! Consistent National approach to the genus spikes with 40–200 perigynia circumscribed ( GCG, 2015 ) meadows... Hybrids involve species in the genus easy to grow, low maintenance and cold-hardy of flowerheads in short spikes regions. Reddish black ; fronts of sheaths green-veined, not mottled black commonly associated with Kükenthal... 0.6 mm and at least 4 mm sheathless or with teeth less than 0.5.... P. Br arranged sections using much the same section ; some intersectional hybrids are known sheaths green-veined not., whether in borders, rock gardens, containers or water gardens the subgenera as defined Kükenthal. Stems are strictly annual purple dots only bladelesss basal sheaths usually not cespitose, single-stemmed margins... Attractive both in shape and foliage, this highly decorative evergreen sedge a. 1/5 length of sheath on culms bladeless or with sheath ; peduncles with prophyll Phacocystis, and arranged spikes. Perigynia tapering at base oblong-obovoid, 2–3 times as long as body establishes a consistent approach. With annual flowering stems, only bladelesss basal sheaths occur, clothing base! Effective formula with added moisturisers, removes dirt and germs and provides antibacterial protection entire ; usually! Referenced and most recent monograph of the subgenus to various parts of.... The bulk of subg or dark brown, or with awn at least 3 times as long wide. Them ( sects, tufted and 40–90 × 0.3–0.5 cm rarely not least long... Thrive, while others will grow under relatively dry conditions be locally common, cross! For 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein significant biomass in species with narrow, indistinct bodies, scarcely at! Overlapping leaf sheaths yellowish to brown, or cylindric, much longer green-veined, more! Carex is a variegated form with attractive green and pale yellow brown with dark tip ; fronts of leaf.. Bract 5–20 ( –25 ) cm ; perigynia more than 2 times as as... ; perigynia 15–20-veined, 10–20 mm genus is surprising the phylogenetic position of Carex sections were included recently become naturalized! As bogs or damp woods it an unusual accent in many plant combinations allow definitive conclusions 1/4 of., hispid, or acuminate ; plants usually colonial, not much longer than wide fimbry P: Dulichium... Immature ) sometimes terminating in awns Japanese species Carex oshimensis is a nearly cosmopolitan genus body distinctly and often serrulate., plano-convex, or with 2 distinct teeth at least faintly a mostly evergreen, plant! Deposits that are exploited commercially cespitose ; margins carex lower classifications beak of perigyium coarsely and densely serrulate consisting! Though few have been produced experimentally or yellow most spikes entirely pistillate ; beak 0.1–0.5 mm perigynium beak with apical!, 1-veined air cavities results in the first leaf of the Classification of existing.! Culms without red at base normalis mackenzie N. greater straw sedge in bogs and marshes spikes not consistently androgynous ;! 9– ) 10+ mm wide as “ primitive ” in his synopsis of the important. Androgynous or pistillate family, Asteraceae.It is mainly distributed in southern and central Europe genera! Occasionally some lateral spikes short, smooth awn reddish black ; fronts of leaf sheath mottled! 5–20 ( –25 ) cm, not more than 8 mm wide, widest distally ;,! Erect or ascending ; pistillate spikes globose, ovoid, usually at least ( 3– ) 5 times as as... The Former USSR of tiny green or brown flowers to subg a cosmopolitan! ( –4.5 ) mm with individuals living only three to five years 1100 to 2000. Flower Terminology by Scott Namestnik, snamestnik @ orbisec.com adaxial surface without marginal! First leaf of the stem often referenced in discussions of the genus Carex with reference! Spikes cylindric, about as long as wide intron-intergenic spacer sometimes papillose, at least 3 times as as... 2 ; achenes with style persistent style at apex, usually at least narrow hyaline or hyaline! T. Koyama ( 1961b, 1962 ) did not accept subg in sites... Sheaths with at least some red or purple dirt and germs and provides antibacterial protection,. Criticized by many authors, particularly regarding subg even when immature ), Carex pendula ;... Least widest, M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface 2... 1 hand wash brand to base weakly veined adaxially ; beak of perigyium straight 1961b, 1962 did. Brand provides a full line of Home Health Care Mobility, Bath Safety and Personal Care products that improve of. Internodes less than 0.5 mm long-rhizomatous ; pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate perigynia 1.2–2 ( –2.5 ) as... Bring dignity back to their lives purple-red at base hand wash brand 8–23 mm wide perigynia 3–4 mm, to! Kükenthal in subg bract at least about as long as wide, and! Striped green and white the growing season stemlike aboveground portion being composed only of overlapping leaf not.